Oyster mushrooms: useful properties and recipes for cooking
Oyster mushrooms are a type of mushroom that has been controversial for centuries. Many mushroom growers try to avoid them, claiming that they are harmful to humans because they grow on rotten or diseased trees. Others are convinced that such mushrooms are useful for the presence of nutrients and are not inferior to other varieties.
- What oyster mushrooms look like and where they grow
- Composition and calories
- How to use the oyster mushrooms
- For Women
- For Men
- For Pregnancy
- For breastfeeding
- For children
- When losing weight
- Oyster mushroom in medicine
- For diabetes
- For gout
- For gastritis
- Recipes of folk medicine based on oyster mushrooms
- Harm and contraindications.
- Can you be poisoned by oyster mushrooms?
- How to Choose and Store Oyster Mushrooms
- Can I freeze?
- Can I Dry
- How to peel oyster mushrooms correctly
- How to cook oyster mushrooms
- Stewed Oyster Mushrooms
- Oyster mushroom appetizer with cheese
- How to Fry
- How to marinade
- How to boil soup
- Salad with Oyster Mushrooms
- Oyster Mushroom Caviar
- Can One Eat Oyster Mushrooms Raw
- Interesting Facts about Oyster Mushrooms
How and where do oyster mushrooms grow?
All species of Pleurotus (except one) grow on trees, which is why they get their name. Mostly they can be found on birch, aspen, willow and pine trees. They do not cause any damage to trees because they start growing already on stumps or diseased plants. In nature, they are harvested from spring to fall, depending on the species.
It is also easy to grow them on substrates, so it is the artificially grown product that is most often found on store shelves. They are cultivated on sawdust, paper, shavings. The temperature and humidity of cultivation does not matter. Therefore, 365 days a year can be harvested.
Externally, the variety differs from others in that the cap, which reaches a diameter of 5-20 cm, turns into a tubular 5-cm stem. These mushrooms grow in large groups, which often results in several heads on a single fruit body. A single group can weigh as much as 1-3 kilograms. Oyster mushroom comes in several species, most of them are edible, but there are also poisonous spore representatives. Depending on the subspecies, the color of the mushrooms can vary from white to brown-purple.
Species of oyster mushrooms depend on the tree on which they grow. The best known are the following:
- Common. The most common species. It grows on the trunks of deciduous trees and can be found from June to October. But the mushrooms freeze in early frosts. The oyster cap is gray or brown in color and grows up to 20 cm, in a group can be about 40 pieces.
- Horn-shaped. Has a distinctive funnel-shaped white cap shape. When cut from a tree, the mushroom darkens to brown in a few hours. Grows on the trunks of maple and elm trees exclusively in summer. In Japan, it is common to grow the variety on fallen elms.
- Lungwort. Similar to the white carob, but the cap is flat, elongated. Young small fruits have a special taste, with the growth acquires stiffness.
- Gray. Grows in the U.S. and Europe on conifers. Gray color is acquired through lack of light and high humidity.
- Pink. Occurs rarely in nature, in the tropics. Distinctive feature - the cap is on the side of the stalk. The characteristic coral color can be achieved artificially by growing mushrooms on corn cuttings as well as crushed dried capsules and cotton stalks. The temperature required for fruit growth is above 30°C.
- Mushroom-ilmac (lemon-flake). The most beautiful and unusual variety. Its cap of bright yellow color has a pungent smell, and dishes from it take on a nutty flavor. It grows on the elm (elm) tree and bears fruit longer than other species from mid-spring to late fall.
- Steppe. It is also called a royal and is the tastiest among other species. The best taste is distinguished by specimens with a gray-red color. When it discolors with age, the mushroom loses its taste and becomes bitter. It has a thick, fleshy stalk. It is the only species that grows on soil.
Composition and calories
The chemical composition of oyster mushrooms is saturated with a valuable vitamin complex, which includes vitamins:
- A - beneficial to the organ of vision, as well as promotes rapid healing of mucosa and bones.
- B - the whole complex - promotes the regeneration of blood cells, which is necessary in the rehabilitation period after surgery. Improves the condition of skin and hair.
- D - forms bone tissue, adjusts the nervous system, improves a good mood. For athletes, it is indispensable because it strengthens muscle tissue.
- PP - cleans the blood from cholesterol.
- Betaine is essential for diseases of the stomach and intestinal tract.
The whole set of vitamins strengthens bones and muscles, sets up the work of the brain and the body as a whole.
In addition to vitamins, the product is full of trace elements such as magnesium, calcium, zinc, fluorine, sodium and phosphorus.
The energy value is as follows:
- There are 35 calories in 100 g of mushrooms.
- Fats - 0.41 g.
- Protein - 3,31 g.
- Carbohydrates - 3.79 g.
How are the oyster mushrooms useful?
These mushrooms are similar to meat and dairy products in composition and the presence of excessive amounts of vitamin D and protein. These substances help build and restore muscle mass and bones. In addition, oyster mushrooms:
- speed up the metabolism;
- break down cholesterol and thin the blood;
- reduce the risk of allergic reactions;
- eliminate toxins;
- Stop the mutation of cells, which prevents the emergence of cancer.
- Oyster mushrooms are rich in folic acid, which is part of the chemical composition. It helps in the treatment and prevention of gynecological diseases.
- Beneficial effect on the skin and hair.
- Promote rapid recovery in the postpartum period.
- Help in the treatment of mastitis.
- Improve digestion and metabolism, helping to quickly lose weight without gaining it again.
- Beneficial effect on the thyroid gland.
- Restore the vital activity of sperm.
- Treat male infertility.
- Help in sports, promote rapid gain muscle mass.
During this period, the use of oyster mushrooms should be treated with caution. Because of their ability to absorb harmful substances from the environment, mushrooms collected near the track are especially dangerous. In this period, it is better to give preference to mushrooms grown artificially. If there is no doubt in the quality of the purchased product, then in moderate quantities they can and even should be eaten.
- Nicotinic acid promotes the development of the fetus, normalizes blood circulation.
- Lecithin regulates the heart not only of the woman, but also the baby.
- Thanks to their high nutritional value, mushrooms satiate the body, relieve feelings of hunger and do not allow you to gain excess weight.
During pregnancy, you should refrain from salted and pickled mushrooms. Not only can they cause heartburn and exacerbate toxicosis, but also lead to increased swelling of the extremities.
Oyster mushrooms are one of the few types of mushrooms that are allowed in small quantities during lactation. Due to the low caloric content, they do not cause bloating and heaviness, getting through breast milk from the mother to the baby. The process of digestion of such food by the baby does not cause discomfort. Mushrooms purify the blood and remove toxins, have a positive effect on sleep, and relieve inflammation.
The only thing to watch out for is the child's allergic reaction after consuming them. Grown artificially oyster mushrooms still contain allergens, although in minimal quantities. So include them in the diet should be gradually and with great care. You need to pay attention to how the baby's body reacts to the introduction of a new product in the menu of the mother.
The opinion of experts on this issue, as well as on others, differs. But pediatricians have come to the opinion that artificially grown oyster mushrooms can be given to children from 2 years of age no more than 2 times a week in small portions.
Nutritious mushrooms with a lot of amino acids and minerals help in the formation of the digestive system and contribute to the digestibility of other products. But start including them in your baby's diet with a teaspoon. To a small child, this will be enough and will not hurt.
When losing weight.
In terms of their composition, oyster mushrooms fully replace meat dishes. Because of this, they are perfect as a substitute for meat during Lent, as well as when dieting. They have even less fat than beef, so to maintain a figure or lose excess weight their inclusion in the diet is the best solution.
There are many variations of dishes with oyster mushrooms. The main rule when losing weight is not to overcook or overcook them. Long cooking reduces their useful properties. Mushroom dishes during the diet can both replace the main, and include them in snacks or combine with buckwheat as a side dish.
Oyster mushrooms in medicine
Due to the abundance of useful amino acids and micro- and macronutrients in some diseases, doctors recommend including mushroom dishes in the diet. In some cases they can not only improve the condition, but even get rid of the disease.
Regular use of oyster mushrooms will strengthen the immune system and help the body to resist pathogenic microbes. The product helps treat hepatitis, helps normalize both low and high blood pressure.
In case of diabetes
Researchers at the Bangladesh Institute for Diabetes Rehabilitation have concluded that continuous consumption of oyster mushrooms in the diet can:
- reduce diastolic blood pressure;
- reduce blood glucose levels;
- eliminate cholesterol;
- normalize body weight.
Diabetes mellitus in its early stages can be cured by following a strict diet. And it necessarily includes oyster mushrooms. They not only relieve the symptoms of the disease, but are also able to equalize the level of insulin and cholesterol in the blood. In this case, you can use them both in cooked dishes and in the form of tinctures.
Important: The glycemic index of oyster mushrooms is 15 units.
Doctors strongly recommend excluding mushrooms from the diet in gout, especially those artificially grown. But the exception are two kinds of mushrooms - oyster mushrooms and beech mushrooms. The fact is that mushrooms, like other protein-containing products, contain purine (a chemical compound that is present in the blood of all living organisms, responsible for the formation of DNA). And with gout, it must be excluded, because if the body does not digest it, it turns into uric acid, which destroys the tendons and joints. So, in the mentioned types this element is contained in the smallest amount. That is why they are allowed to eat, but in small portions and in stewed form.
Dish made of oyster mushrooms can not be used with any diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The fact is that mushrooms, as a heavy digestible product, stimulate the secretion of gastric juice in excess, which leads to a worsening of the condition in the presence of the disease.
But the juice of fresh mushrooms will be a panacea for gastritis and other diseases of the stomach. Taking a tablespoon of the remedy 3-4 times a day before meals, in 10 days you can forget about the pain.
Recipes of folk medicine based on oyster mushrooms
The mushroom is used not only in cooking. As an excellent antibacterial and antiseptic, it fights germs of diseases such as pneumonia and corneal diseases of the eye. Its juice can cure E. coli.
The following recipes deserve special attention, as their action has been proven by scientists not only in China, where folk medicine is preferred, but also in Europe.
- A tincture of 50 grams of crushed mushroom pulp and a glass of vodka will help in hypertension. Insist in a dark cool place for 10 days, shaking occasionally. After that, strain and drink 1 teaspoon before meals.
- From thrombophlebitis you need to eat a tablespoon of caps washed in boiling water before meals. To prevent the disease, stick to a two-week course and take a break for 2 months, then repeat it again.
- When treating neuroses and cardiovascular diseases, you need to pour half a cup of finely chopped oyster mushrooms with a bottle of red dessert wine. After insisting in the refrigerator for a week, strain and drink a tablespoon 3 times a day.
- When avitaminosis to strengthen the immune system make mushroom powder. To make it, you need to cut the mushrooms and use gauze to squeeze the excess moisture out of them. Then dry them in the oven at low temperature (50 ° C) for two hours. Then let cool and grind with a blender or coffee grinder to a powder. Take a teaspoon before each meal 20 minutes.
- Get rid of atherosclerosis will help to eat boiled oyster mushrooms 2 times a day. Boil the mushrooms for no more than 10 minutes. It is this cooking time contributes to the activation of all the useful substances that reduce blood cholesterol levels and clean the blood vessels.
Health Hazards and Contraindications
Since the artificial cultivation observes all the norms and rules for obtaining a quality product without harmful substances and allergens, their possible harm is reduced to a minimum. In stores they sell exactly such oyster mushrooms. With particular caution should be treated to the mushrooms collected in the forest, they should be eaten only if you are fully confident in the quality.
Mushrooms are a very specific product. Despite the enormous benefits for the body, there are diseases in which the use of oyster mushrooms is strictly prohibited:
- All pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. The high content of mushroom fiber, which is not absorbed by the human body, slows down the digestive system, which leads to increased production of gastric juice. Subsequently, this leads to ulcers.
- Kidney failure. Oyster mushroom retains fluid in the body and slows the kidneys. Introducing it into the diet in large quantities will aggravate an already existing problem.
- Allergies. All kinds of mushrooms are in 1st place among the products that provoke poisoning. Because of the large number of trace elements in the composition, the probability of allergic reactions increases. It is possible that the body can reject just 1 element, leading to a serious problem.
Children under 7 years of age and the elderly are also at risk. The thing is that this product is nutritious, but it takes a long time to digest it. Therefore, it can cause discomfort, stomach pain and diarrhea.
Can you be poisoned by oyster mushrooms
Wild varieties of oyster mushrooms can be dangerous to health. Some of the most poisonous include oak and coated ones. They are similar to the edible varieties, but it is strictly forbidden to consume them.
The most common mistake after eating mushrooms is to confuse the symptoms of poisoning and the usual indigestion, in which first aid immediately brings relief. Intoxication brings more problems because the harmful toxins, once in the blood, quickly spread throughout the internal organs. And only after neutralization with potent medications do the symptoms go away.
The main causes of poisoning include the following:
- Substrates containing pesticides have been used in artificial conditions;
- the timing and temperature of cultivation of the product were not observed;
- wild mushrooms were picked near a road or industrial area;
- the oyster mushroom was confused with a poisonous representative;
- storage conditions were not met;
- unsanitary conditions of production (when using purchased canned oyster mushrooms).
To avoid intoxication, it is necessary to carefully inspect the entire surface of the mushroom cap. The purchase or collection should be abandoned if it is found on it:
- dark spots;
- suspicious odor.
Symptoms of poisoning
Not knowing the reaction to mushroom products, it is better to refuse to eat them on an empty stomach. Dangerous symptoms manifest themselves as follows:
- abdominal and intestinal pain;
- painful diarrhea;
- pain in the joints and muscles.
In this case, it is necessary to call an ambulance, indicating the cause - poisoning with oyster mushrooms. This is because there are specific drugs to neutralize the different varieties, so focusing on the type of fungus will enable doctors to give the right help.
Before the ambulance arrives, you should flush the stomach and drink green tea or water with lemon and honey. They will help reduce the effects of toxins and relieve stomach pain.
How to choose and store oyster mushrooms
- Buying mushrooms in the store, you should give preference to specimens of small size. Large weight and size is an indicator of age, such mushrooms become stiff and lose flavor. Cap and stem should be uniformly gray in color, without dark spots and patches.
- The same applies to collecting in nature. There is one more nuance: to distinguish an old mushroom from a young one, you need to break the cap and look at the break line. If it is juicy and white - the mushroom can safely be put in the basket.
- Also, the oyster mushrooms should only have an inherent mushroom smell. In the presence of any other flavor, they should be discarded.
Storage is acceptable in the refrigerator in a glass or plastic container with a tightly closed lid. Shelf life should not exceed 5 days.
Can I freeze
Freezing berries, vegetables and fruits helps hostesses all year round. If there are no questions to such a way of storing mushrooms, then with oyster mushrooms there are problems. And all this is due to ignorance of the rules for preparing mushrooms for freezing.
It is important to carefully inspect each mushroom. If yellow spots begin to appear under the cap, then they should be put aside and cooked immediately. This process indicates that the product has begun to deteriorate due to improper storage or moisture. Such oyster mushrooms should not be frozen.
Algorithm of action:
- Clean. Carefully, without causing mechanical damage, rid the mushrooms of excessive dirt. This is important for storage as a whole.
- Soaking and washing are not recommended because the mushrooms have a porous structure and quickly absorb liquid, retaining it for a long time. If frozen, the liquid will destroy all the useful properties of oyster mushrooms, as well as spoil the taste by adding bitterness.
- Arrange the mushrooms (whole or sliced) in clean, odorless plastic containers. It is important that the lid closes tightly. Then the odors of other foods and air will not enter the container.
In this form, the mushrooms can be used for cooking at any time of year.
Can I dry
Oyster mushrooms are the species with the least amount of moisture. That is why they, although not often used for drying, but they are suitable for it better than other representatives. In this form, they store well, take up little space and do not lose any of their useful qualities.
To dry oyster mushrooms, you need to perform the following steps:
- Peel and chop the mushrooms (optional).
- Wipe with a clean, dry cloth.
- Put them on a paper and leave in the sun for a few hours. If drying at home, it is better to do it over a gas stove or a radiator, having previously threaded the mushrooms.
- Elasticity is the main sign that the drying should be completed. It is important not to miss this point, as under-dried specimens can quickly become covered with mold, and over-dried - crumbling and unsuitable for further storage.
How to clean oyster mushrooms
Artificially grown in suspension on substrates mushrooms differ in the fact that there is absolutely no dirt and sand on them, so there are no special rules for cleaning this species. You just need to wash the oyster mushrooms under running water and clean the cap with a knife from the top layer.
The specimens collected in the forest should be soaked in cold water for 15 minutes before use. After that, rinse under a low pressure of water, cleanse from spoiled areas.
How to cook oyster mushrooms
There are many recipes based on oyster mushrooms. These mushrooms are prepared in different ways. They can be fried, boiled, stewed, marinated, used as sauces and in pies.
There are 2 quick recipes that are suitable not only for the everyday table, but also for the holiday table, even during Lent.
Stewed oyster mushrooms
For this, you need to chop an onion and fry it for 1 minute in oil. Place clean, chopped mushrooms (0.5 kg) and pour 1/3 cup of water. Add spices and stew for 10-15 minutes. Then add grated cheese and chopped dill. Pour everything with a mixture of a cup of sour cream and egg yolk. Leave under the lid on low heat for 5 minutes. Then leave it to marinate for another 5 minutes. Serve with side dish instead of meat.
Oyster mushroom appetizer with cheese
Fry 300g mushrooms with onion and seasoning. Add 20g of butter and a grated clove of garlic. Cook for no more than 10 minutes over medium heat and add the coarse grated cheese. Cover and serve in waffle tarts after 30 seconds when melted.
How to roast
Fried oyster mushrooms with potatoes
Refers to the category of everyone's favorite dish. For this, you need to arm yourself with two frying pans, as the products need different cooking time. To bring the mushrooms to the right condition and not to overcook the potatoes, they should be cooked separately.
Having washed, peeled and chopped vegetables (500 g of mushrooms per 1 kg of potatoes), you need to put them to fry. To the potatoes add onions and season them with spices. Oyster mushrooms fry on a heated frying pan and high heat. Place golden mushrooms on the cooked potatoes and sprinkle with herbs and garlic.
Buckwheat with fried mushrooms
Very easy-to-make dish suitable for those who watch their weight and stick to a proper diet. Fry the mushrooms with the onion in a little oil, season with pepper. Boiled buckwheat poured into the oyster mushrooms, mix. Instead of salt you can use soy sauce.
How to marinade
To do this, add vinegar (2 tablespoons), salt and sugar (3 teaspoons each), 2 bay leaves, 2 cloves of garlic and a couple of peas of black pepper and cloves to boiling water (1 liter). Boil for 2 minutes, then put the mushrooms (350 g), bring to a boil, periodically removing the boil, boil for a minute on high heat, then leave on low heat for 20 minutes. When the time has passed, add 1/3 cup of vegetable oil. Place on an open plate and let cool.
How to Boil the Soup
For cooking, you will need 350 g of oyster mushrooms, 3 medium potatoes and 1 piece each of onion, carrot and tomato, dill to taste, spices and vegetable oil (2 tablespoons).
After the mushrooms and vegetables have been washed, cleaned and chopped, pour 1.5 liters of water and bring to a boil. After that, put the mushrooms. After 3-5 minutes add potatoes and leave for another 10 minutes on low heat. In a pan, fry the onion, tomato and carrot, salt and pepper it. Add the sauerkraut to the pot and simmer on low heat for 10 minutes. Then turn off the heat and let it stand for 20 minutes.
Salad with oyster mushrooms
To make a vegetable salad with mushrooms, you need to cut cucumbers, tomatoes, bell peppers and onions in half rings. Pour boiling water over peeled oyster mushrooms and leave for 2 minutes. After this, chop and add to the vegetables. Season with olive oil, add spices to taste.
Oyster mushroom caviar
Peel and chop the mushrooms and put them on kitchen paper. Place in a deep pan and pour 3 teaspoons of vinegar. After that, fry on a high heat. This is to dry the mushrooms. When excess moisture has evaporated - add a glass of water and stew over low heat for 30 minutes. Separately, fry the onion, carrot (1 piece) and garlic (3 cloves). After that, season the vegetables, mix them and pass them through a meat grinder or grind in a blender. In sterilized jars, place the caviar and close. Store in a dark cool place.
Can I eat oyster mushrooms raw
The oyster mushroom belongs to those few species that can be eaten without pre-cooking. For such eating they need to be scalded with boiling water or covered with cold water for a few minutes. After such manipulation, the oyster mushrooms can be added to salads, appetizers and side dishes.
Not suitable for eating only the legs of the mushroom. Therefore, you need to separate them beforehand, using only the caps.
Interesting facts about oyster mushrooms
- Oyster mushrooms have the same composition as beef, and the presence of micro- and macronutrients is similar to fruit.
- The mass cultivation of oyster mushrooms in artificial conditions began in Germany after World War II, when the military needed good, but cheap food during the time of moneylessness and devastation.
- The record number of mushrooms in one group is 478.
- Oyster mushroom is the most dietary mushroom of all the representatives.
- This mushroom is able to break down radionuclides. Mushroom diet is prescribed to people whose work is connected with the nuclear industry.
- Representatives of Pleurotus are predatory mushrooms. They feed on nematode worms.
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