Porridge from barley groats: composition, useful properties, recipes
Of the 10 species of cereals and grains by processing 14 types of cereals used in cooking in the form of porridges, side dishes and additions to soups. All cereals have useful properties and are used since ancient times in national cuisines of different peoples. Grains are cleaned of impurities, removed from the shell, and shaped by grinding. Of the crops, in addition to wheat and oats, barley is also used to produce barley and pearl barley groats.
- What barley groats are made of
- What is the difference between barley and wheat groats
- Composition and calories
- What are the benefits of barley gruel
- General beneficialness
- For Women
- For Men
- For Pregnancy
- For breastfeeding
- For children
- When losing weight
- Barley porridge in medicine
- Diabetes mellitus
- For pancreatitis
- For gastritis
- When constipation
- For gout
- For the liver
- Pri cholecystitis.
- Hazards and Contraindications
- How to choose barley for porridge
- How to cook barley porridge: Recipes
- With water
- With milk
- In a multicooker
- Can we give barley porridge to dogs?
- Interesting facts about barley groats
Barley is a cultural cereal, the oldest traces of which were found in ancient Syria. Its history of cultivation - more than 10 thousand years. Archaeological excavations in the regions of the Middle East, Egypt proved that barley was cultivated by ancient people. Barley was known to many peoples, so its distribution range was very wide. Barley was used more for making beer malt than for bread and other dishes.
European peasants in the Middle Ages grew barley and wheat. They were in the diet in the form of bread. But with the arrival in the 16th century of the potato from South America, they gave it up slightly to the dominant place in the human diet of the time.
According to written records, barley came to Russia from the Caucasus, Asian countries and from Siberia at the end of the 10th century. Thanks to its biophysical and nutritious qualities and resistance to weather conditions, it quickly became a part of agricultural cultivation in the northern regions and mountainous areas of Russia and became not only the food for people, but also the feed for livestock and poultry.
What is barley groats made of?
Barley, a cereal used mainly in brewing, found use in cooking as well. Crushed barley grains are called barley grits. Grains are first cleaned of chaff. After crushing we get sharp grains of different shapes. The resulting crumbly mass is not ground. For pearl millet grains are ground and polished, as a result, it loses its useful qualities, except for satiety.
According to the size of grits, yachka is divided into numbers from 1 to 3. There is another technology of making barley groats on the principle of oat flakes, when the granules are passed through a flaking drum.
Barley groats are used in the preparation of porridges with water and milk, with the addition of fresh fruit, berries, fruit and berry puree. They make desserts such as sweet casseroles and puddings and add them to soups. The flakes are used to make energy bars with dried fruit and nuts, and muesli.
The cereal itself cooks for a short time, about 40 minutes, increasing during cooking up to 5 times. The porridge is viscous due to the presence of clustered starch, but quickly thickens when cooled, losing water.
Barley groats began to be massively introduced in culinary technology and consumption in the 1930s. The main role was played by the low cost of raw materials and production. In public and dietary nutrition porridge was widely used due to its properties: quick digestibility and nourishment. Children's nutrition also included porridge made of barley groats. For the above-mentioned reasons, barley groats became widespread in the cuisine of the peoples of the Scandinavian Peninsula. There are many recipes for it in Finnish and Swedish cuisine.
Thanks to the development of technology in the 60-70s of the 20th century, the production of groats has moved to the second stage: steaming pellets made the preparation of porridge a faster process. And by the end of the century, industrial development had already contributed in the form of instant porridge, which should only be boiled, without the need for boiling.
In modern society, food cravings have changed. What our ancestors ate 50 years ago is no longer consumed by humanity in the 21st century. People are watching their diet, globalization is blurring the borders between peoples, making national cuisines the property of all mankind. For some time barley was almost not consumed on a large scale. But supporters of proper nutrition and diets recommend healthy and proper products to include in the diet, where barley grits are not in the leading place, yielding to buckwheat, oatmeal and rice, corn and soy. Although by useful properties and nutritiousness barley porridge is not at all worse than other cereals, if you cook it correctly and tastefully. It is useful for therapeutic, dietary meals, for those who suffer from excessive weight.
What is the difference between barley and wheat groats?
The main difference between these cereals in the cereal culture: wheat is obtained from grains of durum wheat. The grains are also crushed, ground or not, depending on the final product the producer wants to obtain. Mostly "Artec" and "Poltava" varieties are used. To obtain small pellets, they are ground. The color is bright golden depending on the variety of wheat. The better the variety, the yellower the pellets of wheat groats. It consists of 60% starch, 22% protein, contains fiber, vegetable fats, a mineral composition of phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and potassium, a vitamin number in the form of groups B, PP, C and E.
Barley groats are crushed grains of cultivated cereal, barley, grayish-white in color. The vitamin and mineral composition and nutritional value will be discussed below. It is rich in minerals (calcium, manganese, potassium). It contains B vitamins, selenium and protein.
Composition and calories
Nutritionists recommend the use of barley groats because of its composition, which is balanced, nourishes the human body with useful substances, minerals and vitamins.
- The main elements of the product are complex carbohydrates (fiber, sugar, starch), which give a feeling of satiety due to the fact that they are slowly digested and assimilated by the human body, giving off energy at a slow pace. That is why it is recommended to eat porridge for breakfast to keep you active for a long time.
- Useful unsaturated fatty acids reduce the level of harmful cholesterol in the blood. They help provide the body with nutrients, nourishing and supporting cells.
- Plant protein includes essential amino acids that support the body's performance.
- The vitamin and mineral group is mostly contained in the shell with which the grains are coated. Processing by grinding or polishing removes the nutrients, so the consumption of crushed grains is preferable. Whole grains are also particularly useful.
Cereal porridge has an energy value in conjunction with other products that are primary or secondary components in a cooked dish. The first include water and milk, the second - various fruit and berry additives, sugar, honey.
Calories per 100 grams of product:
- dry cereal - 324 kcal;
- Porridge on water - 75-100 kcal;
- Porridge with milk - 115 kcal.
Basic substances, minerals and vitamins contained in cereals fully ensure health and maintain the basic functions of the body.
The chemical composition of 100 grams of cereals:
- Protein - 10.4 g
- Fats - 1.3 gr
- Dietary fiber - 8.1 g
- Carbohydrates - 66.3 g
Vitamins (in micrograms):
- А - 1
- Beta-carotene - 13
- E - 0.6
- K - 2.2
- B1 - 0.6
- B2 - 0.3
- B3 - 4,6
- B5 - 0,3
- B6 - 0,3
- B9 - 19
Minerals (in mg):
- Calcium - 33
- Iron - 3,6
- Magnesium - 133
- Phosphorus - 264
- Potassium - 452
- Sodium - 12
- Zinc - 2.8
- Copper - 0.5
- Manganese - 1.9
- Selenium - 37.7
What is useful for barley porridge
Barley groats can have a positive effect on the body, the functionality of the gastrointestinal organs, maintain health.
- It has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, strengthens blood vessels, increases elasticity. Cellulose from cereals affects the level of cholesterol in the blood. This is especially noticeable in reducing the amount of "harmful" cholesterol.
- Normalizes the work of the digestive tract, the intestines through the coating effect. Improves microflora of the gastrointestinal tract. Fiber groats cleans the walls of the intestinal tract, removes toxins and impurities.
- Regular consumption of barley porridge affects blood pressure, normalizing high blood pressure. This is due to the low sodium content, which affects hypertension in older people and patients with diabetes.
- The diuretic and anti-inflammatory effects of porridge have been proven. People suffering from diabetes and obesity are indicated for barley groats.
- Proteins contained in groats give a feeling of satiety for a long time, so the porridge is shown for dietary nutrition and weight loss.
- The general effect on all organs of the human body is noticeable. The constant use of barley porridge normalizes the endocrine system, reproductive organs and the urinary tract of men and women.
- Cereals are able to influence the mood, reducing the depressive state and raising the tone.
- Porridge is a neutral product that does not cause allergic reactions in sensitive people. Barley porridge can be a salvation during seasonal exacerbations of allergic rhinitis, hay fever.
- Anti-inflammatory and restorative properties have an impact on all human organs, which is important in post-operative times, during prolonged severe illnesses.
- Cleansed of toxins the body becomes "light", which also affects mental activity, brain activity.
- Through the restoration of hair, tightening of the skin, the effect of rejuvenation of the body is noticeable with a long and regular intake of barley porridge, as well as with proper preparation.
With age, a person's diet becomes more selective. Meat, which used to be part of the diet for almost daily consumption, recedes into the background, giving way to vegetable protein, which is rich in barley groats. The change in diet and diet is beneficial to the overall condition of the body.
Cereal amino acids affect the production of collagen, which maintains the condition of the skin and helps to avoid early wrinkles. This is especially important for the female sex, because girls are constantly fighting the appearance of the first wrinkles, fighting for youthful skin.
Regular consumption of porridge, not only of barley, but also other cereals, helps to keep hair in perfect condition, nourishing it with useful substances. Nails become healthy and shiny. Cheerfulness and lightness appear, extra pounds go away.
Protein-rich product is ideal for men engaged in heavy physical labor and sports. It recuperates, gives energy for a long time and protects muscles from overwork, useful for recovery after physical exertion. It maintains the tone of the genitourinary system, preventing inflammation, which is important for men's health at any age.
The diet of the expectant mother must be balanced and healthy, so that the developing fetus receives all the necessary microelements without compromising the health of the woman. Yachka is useful because it has no allergens, satiates physically and energetically. It gives vivacity and supports physical activity, saturating the body cells with useful substances. Cereal has tonic properties, promotes healthy and restorative sleep, does not give extra calories, getting rid of fat gain and weight gain. Diuretic properties help to get rid of edema, especially in the last months of pregnancy. Cereal increases the peristalsis of the intestine, cleans it from sluggishness.
Despite children's dislike of porridge, they are the basis for a healthy diet and good health. Barley porridge is beneficial in every way and charges with energy and vigor, strengthening the body and immunity of the child. Well-boiled barley porridge does not cause aversion, on the contrary, children like it with its slightly sweet and delicate taste. It is quickly digested, it is not a heavy food for the delicate stomach. Micronutrients, minerals and vitamins nourish all the organs and systems of a growing person.
Pediatricians recommend giving barley porridge from 18 months of age, boiling it in a more liquid consistency with water. You should start with a small portion, literally 1 teaspoon of porridge. The first thing to do, of course, is to observe the body's reaction to the composition of the cereal. In case of bloating, colic, rashes, redness on the body you need to cancel the porridge and get a doctor's advice.
If there is no reaction, gradually increase the portion. The best option: to prescribe in the children's menu yachka porridge 2-3 times a week. With regular intake, the intestines will work steadily, without failures and constipation. Even in a growing body, the first toxins can appear, which, thanks to the use of yatchka will not stagnate and can be excreted with the stool. Phosphorus and calcium in barley groats complement each other, helping the process of forming and strengthening the child's bone system.
For preschoolers and schoolchildren porridge also gives strength, quickly replenishing the energy expended. Activates the work of the brain to master the world.
When losing weight
For people who are overweight, the problem of losing weight becomes a top priority. For those who have decided to fight the pounds, the first thing to include in their diet is barley porridge, which promotes weight loss. It is also worth reconsidering other foods, counting calories and making a menu for each day, taking into account all the useful qualities of the food consumed.
Eating porridge in the morning gives you vigor, energy and a feeling of fullness for a long time. Milk porridge cooked in water or non-fat milk would be a good start of the day. The body will immediately feel light and want to continue eating correctly and nutritiously without gaining excessive wrinkles on the waist. The barley meal is pleasantly enveloping to the stomach, does not give a feeling of heaviness and does not cause other side effects like flatulence or bloating. It should not be forgotten that such porridge strengthens the immune system, fights sleep deprivation, helps good sleep, relieves nervousness, calms and tunes in a positive way.
Swelling for obese people is a common occurrence. By eating barley porridge, it is hoped that the diuretic effect will reduce puffiness and drive excess fluid from the body. "Barley" diet does not cause side effects, nor does it bring a feeling of unsatiety. Applying porridge as a dietary product for weight loss, it is necessary to follow the time of intake and duration: after 1 week of including barley groats in the diet for breakfast, you should take a break and resume intake again, reducing the use to 2-3 times a week.
Barley gruel in medicine
There is no clear medical effect, as a medicine, with barley groats, because it is a dietary product with a mass of useful properties, which together with other foods and medicines benefit the body. But nevertheless the composition of barley groats can affect the body systems and human health.
For Diabetes Mellitus
Knowing the effect of cereals on the endocrine system, it is necessary to include in the diet of patients with diabetes barley porridge, which significantly reduces blood sugar levels, affecting the work of the metabolic glands with beneficial substances. Antioxidant manifestation removes harmful substances from the blood and the whole body, which significantly revitalizes and prolongs life. Cereal is able to cleanse the blood of harmful impurities and breakdown products of substances entering the body with food and drink.
Important: The glycemic index of barley porridge is 50 units.
Barley and barley groats in their composition have a large amount of complex carbohydrates and gluten, which give a feeling of satiety for a long time. Patients with pancreatitis during exacerbations of the disease are sensitive to any overfilling of the stomach, if it is caused even by subjective sensations. Therefore, it is better to postpone the use of barley groats during such periods. It is good to use porridge when the disease has receded, and the crisis states have passed - to restore the body and strength. But in this case, you need to be careful with this porridge, so as not to cause a recurrence of the crisis.
Therapeutic diet for different forms of gastritis can significantly ease the course of the disease in different forms:
- Acute form, exacerbation of chronic disease;
- Gastritis with normal or elevated gastric acidity;
- The chronic form of gastritis;
- gastritis with concomitant liver disease.
Porridge with gastritis is prepared on a water-based in a liquid consistency or grinded. Depending on the improvement of the condition, you can cook porridge with milk, also bringing it to a mashed state. The use of steamed porridge is popular, but it is better to use it when the disease has already receded, to get a burst of strength and energy. Meat and vegetable broths with groats revitalize the body.
Fibre porridge helps to improve the intestinal microflora, removing toxins and impurities, cleansing the intestinal tract walls. Together with other laxative products (prunes, apricots, fresh fruit) it gives a positive effect in constipation and short-term stagnation in the intestines. It is important to remember that porridge cooked only with water is allowed, in no case can you use dairy products during cooking, especially butter with high fat content. It can be replaced by olive oil or any vegetable oil.
Soup based on vegetable broth will increase the laxative effect of "yachka". Instead of roasted vegetables should be boiled or steamed, then the positive effect on the intestines will be noticeable. Porridge for laxative purposes is taken on an empty stomach.
The dietary properties of barley grits can be used when drawing up a menu for patients with gout. Barley groats affect the endocrine system of the body, normalizing the metabolism and alleviating the patient's condition.
The use of barley groats should be laid for 1 week of dietary intake, alternating it after 1-2 days. Meal intake for the day should be divided into several parts, follow the selection of products and drinking regimen. At the same time it is worth to remove from the diet flour, sweets, fatty meat, fish and eggs, include more vegetables, fruits, increase the intake of water. A week on the barley diet will unload the body, remove toxins and detoxes, improve the condition of the organs - you will see how the weight is reduced.
Cooked or steamed groats in the amount of 500 g divide into 6 equal parts and stretch for 1 day. It is better not to salt the dish. You should drink a lot of water, you can decoctions and herbal teas, compotes of dried fruit without sugar. You should not eat sweets. You can slightly dilute the porridge with nonfat kefir or yogurt. For a greater effect of such a diet, you can add dried fruits with a laxative effect (100 g), also dividing them into several parts.
For the liver
The main organ-cleanser of the human body, the liver, sometimes needs a rest from the labors with which a person loads it, eating fatty foods, abusing alcohol. Complex carbohydrates and amino acids of barley groats help to cleanse the liver. Dietary days are also beneficial for the liver, when with the help of porridge harmful toxins and impurities are eliminated.
During the exacerbation of the disease, barley porridge is not recommended for patients with cholecystitis. But if it is boiled with a lot of water and then grinded into mush, you can take it in a small amount in the morning and evening. The diet in periods of remission should be observed: fatty, spicy - under the ban, all products - only in boiled or steamed form. Milk porridge in a thicker consistency will give a burst of strength and energy, but you should not abuse it, replacing it better with oatmeal.
Harm and contraindications
Porridge of cereals does not have many contraindications and can not cause such significant harm, if it is properly prepared. The chemical composition reveals that there are more beneficial properties than harmful. But there are some individual characteristics of the body, when the use of barley porridge in food will threaten the health:
- Intolerance to the components of cereals, allergic reactions.
- Critical state of the gastrointestinal tract, inflammatory and other processes that prevent normal digestion.
- Pregnancy. There is an opinion that pregnant women are contraindicated for barley porridge because of diuretic properties and the risk of premature delivery, but any overeating can adversely affect human health, so moderation should be observed and it is sometimes possible to eat such a dish.
- Gluten intolerance.
Nutritionists also point out that when eating "yachka" you should not use egg whites, because these products do not combine with each other. Cereal should be consumed in limited quantities, in strict compliance with the proportions. You should not combine porridge with high-fat dairy products.
How to choose barley grits for porridge
A big role in choosing barley grits is played by the appearance and shelf life. The crumbs should be of heterogeneous size, as the product is crushed, not ground. The yachka should be white-gray in color. The granules should be a little shiny and easily crumbled, that is, be without excess moisture. If the humidity is high, it is possible that the groats will be of poor quality, with mold and lumps.
Store barley groats in a vessel with a tight lid, in a dry and dark place, no more than 1.5 years. Old groats can be infested with insects, which should be immediately disposed of. Large quantities of cereal should be reviewed monthly, so that it is not stale and insects do not become infested.
How to cook barley porridge: recipes
Cooking porridge seems simple and does not require much culinary experience. However, even here the proportions and strict consistency are important:
It is necessary to wash the groats in several waters to wash away dust, remove foreign particles and flawed grits. Pour the yachka directly into the boiling water in order to preserve the useful substances. After the first boil, simmer for an additional 20-25 minutes on low heat. It is better to salt at the end of cooking. Vegetable oil added during boiling gives flavor and adds brittleness.
Porridge of liquid consistency is obtained by adding more water or milk. Once cooled, it thickens slightly.
Rinse the groats (2 tbsp.) a little on a hot frying pan, stirring and not allowing to burn the grains. At this time, boil in a pot 5 cups of water, immediately salt it, add the groats and add 3 teaspoons of any vegetable oil. With constant stirring bring to the evaporation of water, while reducing the heat, cook for about 30-40 minutes. Remove from the stove, stir, close tightly with a lid. Wrap a towel around it. In 20 minutes the porridge is ready.
Rinse and peeled barley groats (1 cup), leave overnight, pouring water. In the morning, drain the water, add 2 cups of fresh water, boil for 5 minutes. Season to taste with seasoning or sugar, add hot milk (2-3 cups), simmer for another 5 minutes. After cooking you can add additional taste honey, fresh berries, dried fruit.
In a bowl of a multicooker pour washed and peeled barley groats (1 cup). Pour 2 cups of water, add salt to taste, put any additives and put to boil. Fill the ready dish with vegetable oil.
Can I give barley porridge to my dog?
Barley grits are also useful for pets, especially large dogs, which must get all the necessary microelements and substances with the food. Dog owners cook porridge for their pets and use it as a supplement to their main meal, choosing barley groats for their cheapness and health benefits.
The gruel is not salted and is cooled to body temperature before serving it to the animal. But you can not constantly feed such food to the dog, the daily portion should be 25-40% of the total amount of food that the pet receives. Porridge can be flavored with beef or vegetable broth or served with by-products.
Large and active dogs get energy, vigor, and satiety with barley grits. Older dogs, dogs with intestinal and stomach disorders, sluggish and inactive dogs are not suitable for this food.
Puppies can also be fed with barley, but it should be boiled with milk so that it has a liquid consistency. For nursing bitches and pregnant females, barley groats are also suitable.
Interesting facts about barley groats
- In addition to cultivated barley, which is used as a raw material for making barley groats, there is also wild barley that grows in the tropical latitudes of the eastern hemisphere in the highlands of Tibet.
- Barley before our era was grown only for making foamy drink - beer.
- It is the most ancient cereal grain, the use of which began more than 10,000 years ago in the Neolithic era.
- The Bible mentions barley more than 20 times. The grain was recognized as one of the fruits of the Promised Land.
- Ancient Egyptian tombs have preserved vessels with remnants of barley drink. Beer was in active use among the Egyptians.
- Barley was considered a symbol of Upper Egypt.
- Gladiators of Ancient Rome ate a meal of barley to restore strength and build muscle.
- In the 10th century, the famous Avicenna wrote about the useful properties of barley: anti-inflammatory, restorative.
- Barley flour is used in cosmetology as a base for powder.
- Grains have served as standards of weight and length for some time: 5 grains correspond to a carat, 0.2232 g, and 3 grains are 1 inch (2.45 cm).
- Cultivation of barley in the harsh regions of the mountains and north is due to the short growing season of 60-120 days.
- Barley porridge is used to feed conscripts and has earned its nickname: foam, siecka, kirza, yachka.
- Barley grows in mountainous areas, cultivated at an altitude of 5,000 meters above sea level, in areas of Tibet.
Simple and accessible products, outwardly unpresentable, open up from an unexpected angle. Useful substances, microelements of minerals and vitamins of cereals are firmly included in the nutritious diet and contribute to the health of people. Barley groats, undeservedly forgotten and neglected by nutritionists, will soon take its place in the list of useful and "right" products.
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