Mullet fish: photo, description, useful properties and recipes
Mullet is a type of sea fish, which is found in many bodies of water around the world. Often it can be confused with its counterpart - pelengas. In order not to make a mistake in the choice, you should study this representative of the underwater world in more detail.
- Mullet: what kind of fish, how it looks and where it is found
- What is the difference between mullet and pelengas
- Composition and calories
- Useful properties of mullet
- General benefits
- For women
- For Men
- In Pregnancy
- For breastfeeding
- For children
- When losing weight
- Mullet in traditional medicine
- Mullet application in cosmetology
- Is mullet caviar useful?
- Hazards and contraindications
- How to choose and store
- Can I freeze it?
- How to dress and clean mullet
- How to cook mullet well: Recipes
- In the oven
- In the frying pan
- In a multicooker
- On a charcoal grill
- On the grill
- What can be cooked of mullet: Recipes
- How to salt mullet at home
- Interesting Facts
So, this species belongs to the sea inhabitants. It was first discovered in the warm waters of southern countries and for a long time was found only in salt water, but moved to the mouths of rivers in search of food. This led the individual to be classified as a freshwater fish. In the 19th century, this fish species was introduced into the Black Sea to increase the mullet population.
Mullet: what kind of fish, what it looks like and where it is found
Mullet is characterized by its elongated body, which resembles a torpedo. It has a small head and wide eyes. The nose of the fish is at the same level as the dorsal fin. There are no teeth, for the grinding of food serves the lower lip, which they have quite sharp.
Also the body of the sea creature is covered with scales of large size. There are two fins on the back and as many on the abdomen. The shape of the body allows individuals to perform various maneuvers. The body is colored in gray with silvery elements, while the back is covered with black stripes.
Mullet can be found almost in all bodies of water, as it is unpretentious to the amount of oxygen and salt. This fish does not live only in the Arctic Ocean.
Females are ready to reproduce by the eighth-ninth year, but males mature by the sixth year. Spawning takes place throughout the summer and ends by the fall. After spawning, the fish swim to freshwater areas to feed.
This species feeds on natural mud, from which it obtains nutrients. In addition, the mullet uses worms and invertebrates as food.
Feeding migration occurs in mid-summer. Some flocks that enter the estuaries remain there for the winter. Most fishes do not return with the beginning of spring, but the population is maintained due to the high fecundity of sea creatures.
There are three varieties of mullet:
- Black Sea species - individuals have an elongated body and flattened back. The body is colored gray, the belly can be silver. Still such a mullet has two black stripes. Their scales are large. The head is small in size, the nose is sharp. The adult fish is up to 40 cm in length. Life expectancy is 13-15 years.
- Caspian mullet is larger in size than the Black Sea mullet. The species differs in that spawning takes place in the Caspian Sea in the open sea, while the eggs are located on the surface of the reservoir together with plankton. The Black Sea fish spawns in the Black Sea and estuaries.
- The Azov mullet is also called a crane. The length of this specimen is no more than 30 cm. Despite its small size, the fish has a high degree of fat content. Sold both fresh and frozen.
What is the difference between the mullet and the pelengas?
Mullet and pelengas are completely different fish. It is possible to distinguish them by certain pronounced characteristics.
- First of all, it should be noted that the pelengas is somewhat larger compared to the mullet. In addition, the first species is distinguished by large scales and orange-colored eyes. The mullet has blue eyes, and the scales are small and more dense.
- There are also differences in the ways of feeding and catching. Pelengas, unlike mullet, feeds from the bottom, naturally, catching will be done differently.
- Mullet is a very healthy fish, but the valuable properties directly depend on the period of catch and method of freezing.
Despite the large number of positive qualities, we should still remember that this kind of seafood is quite fatty. It is also important to pay attention to the information provided on the label. Otherwise, you can buy a product that will not only be useful, but also harmful.
Composition and calories
Such a seafood is enriched with vitamins and trace elements, therefore, it has a positive effect on the body.
- Vitamin A in the composition of the fish is responsible for the restoration of mucous membranes and skin. Periodic inclusion of such a delicacy has a positive effect on the organs of vision. Retinol, derived from food of animal origin, is particularly beneficial for health.
- Such a component as vitamin B4 provides a reduction of bad cholesterol, which increases the burden on the internal organs. Also this compound removes toxins and toxic compounds from the body. It is noteworthy that choline has an effect on metabolic processes. As a consequence, people who eat such fish are less likely to be overweight.
- It should be noted that such a product cannot boast of a high content of phosphorus. Such a quantity of the mineral is not enough to restore the activity of the musculoskeletal system. However, it will help to establish the functioning of the kidneys, ensuring the production of cells, as well as supporting metabolic processes.
- The fatty acids in such a delicacy prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases, as well as support the tone of blood vessels and arteries. Specialists advise to include such a component in the diet to reduce the likelihood of heart disease.
- This kind of fish is distinguished by the presence of ascorbic acid and B-group vitamins. The mineral elements include K, P, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Mn.
As for the caloric value of mullet, this figure depends on how the fish is processed. So, fresh seafood in 100 grams contains about 125 kcal, in boiled form this index decreases to 115 kcal, in fried form - almost 190 kcal. Stewed mullet has no more than 80 kcal per 100 grams. This kind of fish is very nutritious due to a high concentration of proteins. Consumption of mullet in moderate quantities is not able to harm the figure.
Useful properties of mullet
- It is known that the composition of this fish contains a large amount of vitamin A. This substance is required for the health of the dermis, improving vision and eye condition. Retinol of animal nature cannot be replaced with food of plant origin.
- Due to the presence of omega acids in the seafood, the brain function improves, and the development of heart diseases is prevented. Regular consumption of mullet eliminates the possibility of heart attack and stroke.
- Among the useful qualities of this fish we can also highlight the fact that it contains a protein that is enriched with amino acids.
- In the course of numerous studies it was discovered that mullet can restore the function of nerve cells. So, if you consume this kind of fish regularly, you can protect yourself from the development of depression, as well as to cope with bad moods.
- The useful qualities of mullet are also indispensable for intestinal disorders.
- If you bake the fish in foil with the addition of vegetables, you get a dish that reduces the risk of arrhythmia. It is recommended to eat mullet to people suffering from atherosclerosis, as well as the elderly to prevent the appearance of such an ailment. In this case, it is better to use the baked or boiled kind.
Remember that the highest content of useful substances in the fish is retained for two days after the catch. Therefore, if you intend to freeze it, in order to preserve the mass of useful substances, freeze it immediately after the catch. It should be defrosted in the air without using water. After that it should be used immediately for food.
As already mentioned, mullet is distinguished by the presence of retinol in its composition. It is because of this vitamin that the seafood is valued by the beautiful half of humanity. This is due to the fact that this substance gives beauty to the skin, providing it with elasticity.
B vitamins in such a delicacy have a positive effect on the work of the NS. For this reason, doctors advise to eat such a product for women who have diseases of the nervous system, as well as those who are prone to nervous disorders, depressions and often face insomnia.
The rich composition of this type of fish affects the blood vessels. The product allows you to make capillary walls thicker and protect them from the development of various pathologies. It is known that the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases is more often exposed to the male half. Heart disease often arises as a result of blockage of blood vessels. In this case, blood clots penetrate them, which interfere with blood circulation. This leads to malfunctions of various organs and systems.
Regular consumption of mullet will clear the blood vessels, preventing the formation of blood clots. This effect is achieved thanks to the omega-3 acids. In addition, this group of substances is able to cope with high blood pressure.
It is recommended to eat mullet twice a week.
This kind of seafood has many healing qualities. It has a composition enriched with macro- and microelements, as well as a mass of vitamins. This allows you to saturate the body with valuable substances, while protecting it from the development of a number of diseases. As for girls preparing for motherhood, they should consult a specialist about including mullet in their diet.
Women should consult a pediatrician while breastfeeding. This is due to the fact that along with various trace elements, fish contains mercury, which can be dangerous for the baby. It is best to postpone such a dish until the baby is 10-12 months old.
In children's diet to enter the mullet is allowed no earlier than ten months of age, that is, when a child can already be given meat products. In this case the initial daily rate should not exceed 10 g. The dose can be gradually increased to 70 g per day. It should be noted that fish broth contains in its composition hazardous substances for children. Such a dish has no great nutritional value. Therefore, it is not recommended to give the child ukha before the age of three years.
When losing weight
Due to the low caloric content, dishes with mullet are included in the list of dietary products. Dill soup with the use of this type of seafood is one of the means used to normalize weight.
To prepare such a dish, you will need 0.8 kg of fish, onion and carrot, 1/2 of celery, fresh herbs, bay leaf, 1 tbsp of flour and the same amount of butter, as well as a small amount of salt. You will also need a couple of eggs and 0.5 cup of sour cream to serve.
First you need to boil a liter and a half of water. Peeled vegetables chop, place in the pot and boil for 5-7 minutes. In the meantime, remove scales, gills and giblets from the carcass. Now place the seafood in another container, add bayroot, salt and cook for another 6-7 minutes. After that, put the carcass on a plate and cover it.
It is necessary to boil the eggs and peel them from their shells. Finely chop the herbs, fry them, add flour and mix thoroughly. After that, pour the broth into a container with the greens and cook for another 5 minutes. Now mix the yolks with sour cream, and finely chop the protein part. All this drop into the soup and mix.
In a plate before serving, you must first put a piece of fish fillet, and then pour the very soup. The dish will be more tasty if you add a little basil to it.
Mullet in folk medicine
Regular use of this variety of sea creature cleanses the arteries and capillaries, normalizes blood pressure values. In addition, mullet is used to treat sick joints. In this case, you can use the recipe of folk medicine. To do this, first gut the fresh seafood, the scales should not be touched. After that, wash the carcass with water, cut along the backbone so that the pieces are the size of your palm. The inside of the fish pieces should be put on the sore spot and fastened with a bandage. Leave such a compress for the whole night. You can take it off only in the morning. After that, the area on which the compress was applied, wash with warm water and soap. The course of treatment is usually 10 days, but the patient feels an improvement after half this period. In some cases, frozen fish can also be used for such procedures.
From heel spurs can be cured in the same way.
The use of mullet in cosmetology
It is also known to use the explored fish in the field of cosmetology. This product allows to smooth wrinkles and makes the skin fresh due to the omega-3 acids. Before applying the cosmetic composition, you should clean the dermis by removing any residual moisture with a napkin.
- For example, you can apply fish oil on the face to eliminate wrinkles. Such a procedure will smooth out creases, protect against the development of pigment spots. To get a mask, you need to mix 1 tsp of fish oil, 1 tbsp of starch and a small amount of ginger oil. The resulting mass is applied to the face and soak for 60 minutes.
- The raw material of such seafood is also used to obtain a mask for acne. In this case, mix 3 ml of mullet fat with 10 g of blue clay, 15 mg of calendula and a natural sorbent. Such a composition works for half an hour. At the end of this time, wash the mask with water and lemon juice.
- For the skin around the eyes is suitable mask consisting of 5 ml of fish oil and 3 leaves of parsley. Grind parsley greens to a mushy consistency. Then soak a gauze cloth in the mixture and put it on the eyelids. After 30 minutes the remedy can be removed.
If you combine such an ingredient with honey, the skin will become elastic. If you use sour cream and quail eggs as an auxiliary component, you can get rid of excessive dryness of the skin.
Is mullet caviar useful?
Fish caviar is a product that contains a large number of vitamins and minerals, which are necessary for human health. Such a component is easily assimilated, provides an increase in immunity, is beneficial for brain activity. In addition, this product provides normal blood circulation.
Mullet caviar is the most suitable product that can raise the level of hemoglobin in the blood, provide elasticity of the skin and return health to the hair. Such caviar contains such minerals as iodine, calcium, iron, potassium and others. This complex of substances is indispensable for anemia, atherosclerosis, poor hair, nails and skin.
Harm and contraindications
This kind of fish has almost no contraindications, except for individual intolerance. In this case, a person may develop an allergic reaction. In this case, it is necessary to limit or completely stop the use of this seafood.
It is also important to monitor the quality of fish. If it is fresh, you should pay attention to the presence of parasites. To avoid contracting helminths, it is necessary to carefully inspect each fish, clean it and remove parasites, if any.
It is necessary to remember that you can get poisoning if you use low-quality or poorly treated fish. It should be taken into account that a long heat treatment prevents intoxication of the body and protects against infection with helminths that may be in the fish.
It is also necessary to limit the use of fried, smoked and salted mullet to people who have diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The high salt content will have a negative effect on blood vessels and intestines. In the presence of such pathologies it is recommended to prepare fish products by stewing or boiling, without using any spices. It is recommended to make steamed fish cutlets for children.
How to choose and store
The taste and benefits of dishes from mullet directly depend on its correct choice in the market. So, when choosing such a delicacy, it is necessary to take into account some points. First of all, it is necessary to examine the eyes. It should be remembered that they should be clear and bright. If the eye sockets are cloudy, the pupil is not distinguishable in them, it indicates that the product is spoiled. Next, pay attention to the density of the scales. Make sure that the scales do not fall off the carcass. The body should not have any spots, dents or mechanical damage.
To check the elasticity of the product, you need to put pressure on it. If the fish is fresh, the body will quickly recover, but spoiled seafood will not be able to regain its former shape.
It is also important to pay attention to the appearance of the mullet. If the specimens on the plate are shabby, they should not be taken. This only means that the fish was frozen several times.
Cleaned mullet without the head and gills should be carefully washed and dried. In this form it can be kept in the refrigerator no more than two days.
Can I freeze?
To extend the shelf life of mullet, you can freeze it. In this case, you should wrap the mullet in foil, put it in a vacuum container and send it to the freezer. In this case the shelf life is two months.
How to dress and clean a mullet
Cutting up a mullet is not difficult at all. First it is necessary to clean the delicacy from scales and innards. The next step is to remove the head with a sharp knife. Then it is necessary to make a cut along the backbone, remove the fin, and then separate the meat from the bones. It is also important to cut off all remaining fins and the tail of the fish.
It should be remembered that in this case for cutting it is recommended to use sharp tools and special devices designed for cleaning fish.
Most hostesses recommend using boards made of plastic or glass for cutting, because wooden products can absorb unpleasant flavors. To the process of cleaning after cleaning does not take a long time, you can first put paper or parchment under the fish, which, after work, throw away together with the giblets and scales.
How to cook mullet well: Recipes
Mullet meat is valued for its high protein content and lack of carbohydrates. If the product was bought frozen, defrost it only naturally. If you use warm water, the meat will lose most of its valuable substances.
Of course, the most useful for the body is the fresh fish that has been caught maximum two days before cooking. It can be boiled, baked in the oven, stewed or fried. It can be combined with potatoes, vegetables and cereals. To make it easier to clean the fish from scales, you can pour boiling water over it for a minute.
In the oven
To make mullet in the oven you will need 3 fish, 2 lemons, a bunch of green onions and dill, 3 tbsp mustard, salt, 3 tbsp olive oil, 2 cucumbers, some coriander and half of the Beijing cabbage.
The cooking process begins by rinsing all the ingredients. Mullet should be stripped and cleaned. Chop the cilantro and onion and dill finely, they will be used for the stuffing. Squeeze 1/2 of a lemon over the chopped greens. After that, salt the mass.
Now the prepared stuffing and a slice of lemon should be placed in the belly of the fish. The carcass should be thoroughly stuffed. After that, cover a baking tray with foil and put the fish on it. Sprinkle it all with vegetable oil and sprinkle with the rest of the herbs. Wrap the prepared seafood in foil. Leave a small hole in the top so that it warms up. Preheat the oven to 180 degrees, then bake the sea creature for 30 minutes. After 10 minutes of turning on the oven, add 1 tsp. olive oil to the foil with each fish.
At this time you can prepare a fresh vegetable salad. To do this, tear cabbage leaves with your hands and shred cucumber. In a small container mix these components. Add mustard, olive oil and lemon juice. Spread the resulting salad on individual plates. Place the cooked fish on it. Serve the dish with greens.
In the frying pan
To fry mullet, you need 2 fish fillets, 50 ml of vegetable oil, a pinch of black pepper, 0.5 tsp. oregano, a pinch of sage, tarragon and dried garlic, lemon and salt to taste.
Fillet of mullet should first be washed, dried a little and smeared with vegetable oil to make it easier to spice up the fish. Mix all the spices in a separate bowl, then coat the filet in them. Before frying, heat the oil in a pan, then cook the fish until crispy. One side usually takes no more than two minutes. Serve the ready dish with lemon juice and some hot sauce.
For those who like crispy fish you can dip the filet in a thick batter made of flour and eggs. This is done after dipping it in seasonings.
In the multicooker
You can also cook mullet not only in the oven, but also in a multicooker. This way of cooking is much easier, since in this case you only need to put the product in the device, add the remaining ingredients, set the desired function and turn on the technique.
To cook mullet in the multicooker you will need the fish itself, peppers, zucchini, as well as spices, oil and salt to taste. Vegetables should be peeled and chopped. Remove all the seeds from the pepper. Fish is also peeled and cut into pieces.
All components put in a bowl of a multicooker in layers. Each layer should be salted, peppered and seasoned with vegetable oil. The last layer should be mullet. It should also be sprinkled with vegetable oil.
Now that all the ingredients are ready and in their places, it is necessary to close the lid of the device, select a specific program and turn on the multicooker. It usually takes 90 minutes to cook such a dish.
On the grill
There is another way to make delicious mullet. From it you can prepare a kebab. For this you need 1 kg of fish fillet, 2 small zucchini, about 10 pieces of medium tomatoes, 2 tablespoons of olive oil, a squeeze of lemon and salt and pepper to taste.
Peeled and sliced zucchini and fish, put on skewers and roast on the grill. The ready dish is decorated with tomatoes and chopped greens. It is also recommended to pour lemon juice and olive oil over everything.
On the grill
Mullet is also cooked on the grill. In this case, first you should cut off all the fins. Then clean the fish from scales. Particular attention should be paid to the belly in this case, as there is a lot of scales, which does not allow you to make a clean cut to disembowel. Also, it can fall into the plate. Now remove all the insides of the fish and make transverse cuts on both sides of the carcass so that the marinade can soak in better.
The marinade can be made with oil, lemon juice or wine vinegar. If desired, add a small amount of soy sauce to this mass. Now it remains to add herbs, dried spices, garlic, coriander, fennel, etc. Mix all these components until a thick consistency is formed. The resulting marinade should be rubbed on the fish, both outside and inside. To marinade it, you need to wait for an hour. Only after that, you can salt it. Before cooking on the grill, it is recommended to remove the excess marinade, so that it does not stick.
What can be cooked from mullet: recipes
There are many recipes for cooking dishes using mullet fish. But in order for dishes from this variety of seafood to be tasty, you need to use a fresh product immediately after catching. When braising the delicacy, you can add garlic, but if you have to bake it, it is better to use lemon juice. Remember also that the fish can be defrosted only in the air without water, otherwise it will lose its flavor.
The most common way to prepare mullet is by pouring it. The flesh of such fish perfectly solidifies in the broth and without the use of gelatin. It can be added only to get a stronger jam. Do not add much water; it's enough to just cover the filet, otherwise the broth will be weak. Of spices, you will need black pepper, nutmeg, basil and thyme.
Basic ingredients: 1 kg of mullet, 500 ml of water, 1 tsp of salt, carrots, 2 eggs, an onion, 5 peas of black pepper and 2 bay leaves.
The fish should be cleaned, gutted, thoroughly rinsed and poured with water. Add the vegetables, salt and spices. Cook the mass for a quarter of an hour. After that, remove all bones and fins, and divide the fillet into pieces. Then distribute the flesh on plates along with slices of hard-boiled eggs and carrots. Pour it all with decanted broth and leave in a cold place overnight to freeze.
To get a soup, you will need 4 fresh fish, 2.5 liters of water, 2-3 potatoes, 1 onion, salt, black pepper, bayroot, fresh herbs.
The process of cooking such a dish begins with rinsing the fish fillet under running water. It should be cleaned of scales, all insides as well as bones and backbone should be removed. Next, place the fish in a bowl with water. The liquid should cover the fish fillets by 3-4 fingers. Also add bay leaf, dill herbs, black pepper and salt. After boiling, turn down the heat. Cook the dish until cooked for 15-20 minutes. During cooking, constantly remove the foam with a slotted skimmer. Dice the potatoes and grate the carrots. After 20 minutes from the boiling time, pour the vegetables into the pot.
Now cook the dish for another quarter of an hour. Next, take the fish out of the soup, divide it into several pieces and return it to the pot. After that, cook the soup for another 15 minutes, and then take it off the stove.
Most moms think about how you can cook mullet so that the baby it came to taste. A great way out of this situation is to cook from such fish cutlets. Stuffing turns out to be very tender. In addition, if you add it bread soaked in milk, onion and carrots, the cutlets are juicy and tasty. It will be much easier to make meatballs from minced meat, if the preparation initially for an hour will be in the refrigerator. So, we need 1.3 kg of mullet, 100 ml of milk, 2 eggs, 1 onion, 1/2 lemon, 100 grams of bread, a pinch of black pepper, 50 ml of vegetable oil.
The cooking process is very simple. First you need to cut the fish and grind it with onions. Pour milk over the bread, and then squeeze and mix it with the minced meat. Also add eggs and spices here. After adding lemon juice, knead the mass and make cutlets out of it. Fry them on both sides for 5 minutes on low heat.
How to salt mullet at home
Nowadays, mullet can be stewed, baked in the oven, cooked in a pan or on the grill. However, in the past, this type of seafood was most often salted. Since the fish has a fleshy and greasy flesh, it soaks up the salt perfectly. It does not matter how to salt the mullet - in one piece or in pieces. The only important thing is that only fresh fish is suitable for such processing, because the defrosting of frozen product breaks the structure of the fish fillet, and then the flesh will not absorb the seasonings. Also remember, only coarse salt, not iodized, is suitable for such purposes.
To salt mullet with your own hands, you will need 1 kg of fish, 400 g of salt and 1 liter of purified water. Half of the salt and 500 ml of water are used to prepare the brine. The fish should be gutted through the gills, the belly should not be touched. Rinse the carcasses in water with salt and then dry thoroughly. Pour the rest of the salt inside the mullet. Then put the fish into a bowl and pour the prepared solution. They should be kept under a crate in a cool place. Change the brine every two days. It takes 2-3 weeks for such treatment of fish.
- The maximum weight is 7 kg, while the length of the fish can reach 0.9 m. Such fish can live up to 15 years.
- As you know, after spawning, the mullet goes to freshwater reservoirs, where it stays for the whole winter. During this period, it is forbidden to catch mullet in the Black Sea, because most river fish do not return.
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