Beech mushrooms: useful properties and recipes for cooking
Chickpeas are considered to be quite common mushrooms, from which a variety of delicious dishes are prepared. They can be fried, salted, pickled, dried, etc. They grow in whole families, so you can pick a whole basket of mushrooms from one area at once. For this reason, many mushroom pickers prefer to pick beech mushrooms. If you have found several openoks in the woods, it means that there is a whole group or a friendly family of this species somewhere nearby. Rarely does a fungus grow alone. Opyatas surprise with their diversity. Even the seasoned mushroom hunter can be confused when determining the species.
- How they look and where they grow
- Features of appearance
- How real honeydew differ from false honeydew
- Composition and calories
- How to use beech mushrooms
- For Women
- For Men
- For Pregnancy
- For children
- When losing weight
- Are pickled beech mushrooms useful?
- Can we eat beech mushrooms with gout?
- Medical Usage
- Harm and contraindications
- Symptoms of poisoning by beech mushrooms
- How to store the mushrooms
- Can they be frozen
- Can I Dry
- How to peel mushrooms correctly
- What can be cooked of beech mushrooms: Recipes
- How to roast
- How to boil
- How to marinate
- Can I Eat False Beech Mushrooms?
What they look like and where they grow
These are lamellate mushrooms. Usually, mushroom hunters go to the forest in the fall to get real, true mushroom caps. Their round caps can be seen from afar. Opyat grows near old, rotten trees, on rotten stumps, around dead wood and snags. But you can find members of the family in the meadow, under bushes, on forest edges. The stalk length of the honey fungus is usually 12-13 cm. Some species have a fringe on the stalk or, as many mushroom hunters call it, a skirt.
Peculiarities of appearance
It is possible to distinguish true representatives by the following features:
- They have a high stalk that has a peculiar ring in the middle of the length or closer to the hat.
- The cap itself has a rounded shape resembling an umbrella.
- The surface of the cap of the mushroom is scaly.
- The color of the cap can vary from pale yellow to red.
- The plates at the bottom of the mushroom cap are cream-colored or pale yellowish.
There are 34 known mushroom species of the opel, of which only 22 have been thoroughly studied. All of them are somewhat similar to each other, but each species has its own characteristic features.
A distinction is made between true and fake (false), edible and inedible. In this article, we will consider some representatives of the family in more detail and learn how you can distinguish between true openok and "fake".
According to the date of emergence and external signs, several of the most well-known species can be distinguished:
- Autumn or true openok;
- summer openok;
- winter openok;
- royal; etc.
This species is called a true or true representative of the opium family. It is characterized by the emergence in the fall. If the autumn is warm, there is a chance to find mass families and gather a rich harvest. Both deciduous and coniferous thickets are suitable for such a species. The mushroom can be called indecipherable, because it can parasitize in different places: not only near trees, but also in the grass and near bushes.
It is not difficult to recognize it, so even a novice mushroomer will be able to recognize it. The cap has a pleasant yellowish color, reminiscent of the shade of honey, can be pale orange or light brown. The cap is darker in the center. Its surface has scales which may disappear with age. The stalk is long (8-10 cm).
The size of the cap of the young openok is small, with a diameter of 3 to 5 cm. The shape is convex, round, turning inward at the edges. The caps of mature mushrooms open and increase in size, their diameter can reach 10 cm or more.
The cap of the beech mushroom is dense and its flesh has a whitish color. The mushroom smells pleasantly. With mature specimens, the flesh of the cap becomes coarse and almost unusable for eating. It is better to avoid such mushrooms. Mature specimens are not only unpalatable, but can also be harmful to health.
The emergence of the fall species is common in damp birch, aspen, coniferous and other forests. The beginning of growth is August, and the end of the emergence comes with the first frosts. The optimum temperature for this type of mushroom is +10°C.
It practically does not differ from the autumn one. However, the mushroom has a richer color of the cap - light brown and looks stronger in appearance. The places where it grows are the same as for the first species.
The name itself speaks for itself. The mushroom has a thicker stalk than the autumn and northern species. It also has scales on the cap, which have a light color. This species is not found in whole families. Thick-legged beech grows in small groups.
The cap of the thick-footed species has a wide shape, lowered to the bottom at the edges. Its diameter is no more than 10 cm. The color of young specimens varies from light brown to dark. Thick-footed beech mushrooms with pink caps can be found. With age, the color darkens and turns brown.
Young opetskids always have a "skirt" on the stalk, which disappears as they grow. The beginning of the emergence is August, the end is September.
Quite a beautiful mushroom with a bright cap. The color of the cap is deep brown or bright yellow. In this species, the scales are located on the entire surface of the mushroom. The stalks are tuberous in shape. They can grow on both trees and the ground.
The growing season is from early August to early October. The mushroom prefers deadwood, old stumps, rotted trees.
This is a ringless species (or, as it is also called, oak). It prefers deciduous trees. The stalk does not have a characteristic feature - a ring, so it can be confused with the false representatives of the honeydew. Only experienced mushroom pickers can identify the real mushroom and collect it.
You can recognize the honey fungus by its other characteristic features: scales on the cap and the hairiness of the body, which is characteristic of true representatives of the honey fungus. The mushroom is harvested starting in July. Finish the harvest in October.
This species is not related to the real opyat, but very similar to it. It is edible, so we will tell a little about it.
The cap of the mushroom is small, not exceeding 6 cm in diameter. The color is pale yellow. The main sign of this species is the presence of a tubercle. The surface of the cap is smooth, almost without scales. The stalk is shorter than that of the autumn species.
The mushroom can be harvested starting in April. This species bears fruit until the onset of cold weather.
This is also a false, but edible openok. Outwardly does not differ from the true representatives of the family, prefers rotted trees and rotten stumps. It gets its name from its ability to bear fruit even at low air temperatures. The emergence season is determined from autumn to early spring. But this does not mean that in 40-degree frosts you can collect the mushroom. In such cold weather it is in anabiosis, but with the first thaw it will instantly begin to revive.
It is not choosy in the choice of places of growth. It can be found in the forest, in the garden, in the park, etc. For this reason the winter species is successfully cultivated by the Japanese and Koreans.
Also refers to the false beech mushroom. Very similar to the true representatives of the family, the same color and the same shape of the cap. But there is no ring on the stalk, and you will not find scales on the cap.
The mushroom prefers meadows and open places with grass. It can be collected from early summer to late fall.
Refers to the false chives. It has a rather peculiar and spectacular appearance. Its entire body, including the stalk, is covered with scales. It has a bell-shaped cap, prefers forest rotten stumps and trees, begins to emerge in August, ends in late autumn.
What is the difference between true and false beech mushrooms
How to distinguish the true representatives of the family of opiate from the false ones? Let's look at the characteristics of true honey bean currants:
- They have a ring-shaped formation on the stalk, or as it is called - "skirt".
- Have a pleasant smell.
- The caps of true honeycombs are always pale in color.
- The surface of the caps is covered with scales.
- The plates under the cap have, a pale yellow, close to white, or cream color.
Composition and calories
Beech mushrooms are low in calories. There are only 17 kcal per 100 g.
Worth knowing! The main composition of mushrooms is water. Its content in the opyat is 90%.
In addition to water, the mushroom contains:
- dietary fiber;
Of the useful elements, it is worth allocating amino acids, micro- and macro-elements, antioxidants. In particular, the composition of the mushroom includes:
- B vitamins, A, E, C;
- calcium and others.
What are the health benefits of wild boletus mushrooms
Let's highlight the main points of usefulness of mushrooms for the female body:
- The product is low-calorie, so with it you will not gain extra pounds.
- Helps with diets and unloading days.
- Removes excess fat from the body.
- Normalizes the nervous system, helps with anxiety and insomnia.
- Promotes the formation of new cells due to its composition.
- Strengthens blood vessels.
- Beneficial effect on skin, nails and hair.
- Removes toxins from the body.
- Helps with constipation.
- Prevents the development of malignant tumors, particularly breast cancer.
Mushrooms can completely replace a full lunch or dinner, despite their low caloric content. Opyatka is quite nutritious.
It is known that mushrooms of this family reduce blood cholesterol. They contain enough protein that the stronger sex needs to maintain muscle tissue. Mushrooms have a positive effect on the heart.
Opyatka during pregnancy can be eaten, but in moderate quantities and only in boiled or stewed form. This is a nutritious and useful product that will saturate a woman's body with missing minerals, micro- and macroelements, vitamins.
- During lactation, it is allowed to eat chives, but it is necessary to follow the rules:
- Do not abuse the mushrooms.
- It is better to buy the mushrooms, which were grown on the farm.
- You can not eat pickled mushrooms, it is worth refusing from salted ones as well.
Important! You can start eating mushrooms when the child will be over 4 months. Until then, it is not worth the risk.
It is worth noting right away that until the child is 7 years old, it is not necessary to give him mushrooms. They can cause discomfort and upset stomach. But after the age of 7 years, mushrooms in limited quantities will benefit children.
Opyatas are capable of:
- improve vision;
- activate the brain function;
- strengthen the immune system;
- normalize the nervous system.
When losing weight
When conducting diets, beech mushrooms are in particular demand. Their caloric value, even when fried, does not exceed 22 kcal per 100 grams. For this reason, thin people can safely use mushrooms for lunch and dinner. At the same time it is important that a person does not have digestive problems, because mushrooms can be hard for the body to digest.
Are pickled beech mushrooms useful?
Some people incorrectly claim that pickled beech mushrooms have no benefits for humans. This statement is incorrect. If you compare the composition of fresh mushrooms with pickled ones, there is not much difference between them. On the plus side, pickled honeydew is easier for the body to digest, and it has virtually no fat. The minus is the high carbohydrate content. But the product remains useful, nutritious and very tasty.
Is it possible to eat beech mushrooms with gout
Opyat with gout is allowed to include in your diet, but in small amounts. Mushrooms contain almost no purines, so this species, along with oyster mushrooms, is considered a permitted product for the patient. You can eat stewed mushrooms and boiled mushrooms, refusing from salted and pickled ones.
Important! During a period of exacerbation of the disease, mushrooms should be abandoned.
Chickpea mushrooms are used by folk healers. From their mycelium a special kind of bread is prepared for diabetic patients. The mushrooms serve as a laxative. It is proven that the mushroom pulp is able to overcome staphylococci, help eliminate E. coli from the body. Mushrooms are also useful in case of radioactive radiation.
In medicine, the opyat is used as an antibiotic and pain reliever. It is known that an alcoholic tincture prepared on the basis of mussels can remove warts. Taking the infusion internally, adding a little honey to it, you can cope with viral infections and strengthen the immune system.
Harm and contraindications
There are no special contraindications to the use of mushrooms, but they should not, for example, eat them at night, because the food is heavy. With caution, people who suffer from:
- Gastrointestinal diseases;
- kidney failure;
Also, you should not give mushrooms to children under the age of 7 years.
Symptoms of poisoning by beech mushrooms
It is possible to cause poisoning not only with poisonous specimens, but also with edible ones. The cause of poisoning can be improper storage or cooking.
Signs will appear almost immediately or a couple of hours after eating them:
- nausea and vomiting;
- pain in the intestines and stomach;
- heartburn and belching;
- fever up to 38°C;
How to store beech mushrooms
Let's look at storage times for fresh, salted, and pickled honeydew.
Keeping opiats fresh can be no more than 5 hours in the refrigerator. The important point is that they can be stored only in raw form. If the mushrooms have been peeled, they must be put to boil immediately.
The shelf life of salted opiate mushrooms depends on the method of salting them. With hot pickling method, it is allowed to store mushrooms in the refrigerator for up to one year, with cold - no more than 6 months.
The optimum temperature - +5 ° C. Lower temperature can freeze the mushrooms, so they will lose their value. At higher temperatures they can sour and become unfit for food.
Proper preparation of mushrooms for marinating and a consistent process of preservation allows you to keep the mushrooms in this state for up to 12 months. If jars were closed with a normal polyethylene lid, their shelf life - six months. Roasted canned chives, poured in oil, should be stored for no more than six months.
The optimal temperature is +5°C. It is acceptable to store them in a dark cool place, so it is not necessary to use a refrigerator. However, in this way the period is shortened to 3 months.
Can I freeze
Freezing mushrooms is considered the most ideal way to store them. To do this, the mushrooms must first be sorted, remove debris, cut off the lower part of the stalk. If the specimen is large, it is necessary to remove the shell.
Do not wash mushrooms before freezing! They can stick to each other. If washing is unavoidable, you must thoroughly dry the mushrooms before sending them to the freezer.
Be warned! Freeze the beech mushrooms in polyethylene bags or containers.
The optimum temperature is minus 22°C. If all the conditions for proper storage are met, the mushrooms can stay in the freezer for up to six months, preserving their value and useful qualities.
Opyatas, previously heat-treated, can stay frozen for up to a year.
Can you dry them
Drying mushrooms is one of the ways to store them. In terms of taste and usefulness, dried beech mushrooms are as good as pickled ones. The minus is the "unpresentable" appearance.
Dried mushrooms are stored in containers or glass jars. The container should be tightly closed. You can store dried chives in canvas bags, the main thing is to keep the place dry.
Important! Mushrooms should be checked once a month, so that they do not have bugs. If there are, rinse them and dry in an oven at 70 degrees Celsius.
The shelf life is one year.
How to clean mushrooms correctly
To facilitate the home process of cleaning the opiate mushrooms at home, it is necessary to begin the selection, getting rid of trash, rotten and wormy specimens already when picking mushrooms. From the stem of a healthy opyat cut off the bottom part, remove coniferous needles, leaves, dirt, etc. Free the cap from the film.
Important! When you get home, sort the opium mushrooms again right away. If rapid sorting is not possible, the mushrooms should be placed in water, adding citric acid and salt.
Cleaning will require a knife, sponge and colander.
- First, separate the caps from the stalks.
- With a knife clean off the dirt.
- We remove the damaged parts.
- Rinse with water the rim, which is under the cap, or remove it with a knife.
- Wash the mushrooms and start cooking.
If you plan to dry them, you should not wash them!
What can be cooked of the honeydew: Recipes
For cooking we will need:
- beech mushrooms - 400 g;
- a few shoots of green onions;
- sunflower oil - 2 tbsp;
- onion - 1 bulb;
- vinegar - 1 tbsp;
- salt and pepper - at the discretion of the hostess.
- Peel, clean and wash the opiate mushrooms.
- Boil for an hour. We look at the readiness. You may need less time. Then drain the water.
- Send the mushrooms to fry in oil until all the liquid evaporates.
- Remove from heat and cool.
- Send roasted mushrooms in a mincer and pass them through it.
- Onion chop and fry in the same pan and in the same oil in which fried beech mushrooms.
- Add pepper, if necessary, salt. A couple of minutes before they are ready, add shredded shoots of green onion and pour the vinegar. Thoroughly mix the ingredients.
- Mix fried onions with ground onions and thoroughly mix all the ingredients.
- Prepare the jars: sterilize them, along with their lids. Spread the caviar.
- In a separate bowl, heat up, one might say - heat up, vegetable oil.
- Pour the hot oil into the jars with the caviar, so that the snack is completely covered with oil. Roll up.
- Store the caviar in the refrigerator or in a cool and dark place.
To prepare the soup we will need:
- Beech mushrooms - 300 g;
- Carrot - 1 medium-sized piece;
- potatoes - 2 pcs;
- Onion - 1 bulb;
- bay-leaf - 1 leaf;
- vegetable oil - 1 tbsp;
- peppers - 4 pcs;
- Salt - at the discretion of the hostess.
Opyatka for the soup take a medium or small size in order not to cut them, and leave whole. It will turn out both beautiful and delicious. To the soup you can add other ingredients, such as pearl barley or other cereals, pasta. The soup will turn out more nourishing and rich.
- Clean and wash mushrooms. Put them in a separate pan, then pour water, salt and cook on the gas. As the water begins to boil, remove the pot from the stove and drain the water. Pour a new batch of water and wait for the vegetables to cook.
- Shred the onion finely. Grate carrots on a grater with large or medium-sized cloves.
- Fry the prepared onion and carrot in oil.
- The potatoes are cut into arbitrary slices, preferably cubes of medium size.
- In a pot we send roasted vegetables and sliced potatoes. Turn on the gas and boil.
- We wait for the water to boil, then reduce the heat, salt, pepper the pot and continue cooking until all ingredients are fully cooked.
- Once everything is ready, turn off the gas and leave the soup to simmer on a hot stove. It will take no more than 10 minutes. You can add greenery to the soup, it will be even more appetizing.
- Serve to the table.
To prepare the salad you will need:
- Beech mushrooms - 300 grams;
- eggs - 3 pcs;
- potatoes - 200 gr;
- ham - 300 gr
- yoghurt - 150 gr
- green onions - 30 gr
- pepper - to taste;
- salt - at the discretion of the hostess.
- Wash and clean the mushrooms, pour water on them and send them to boil for half an hour. Drain the boiling water and pour new fresh water on the mushrooms. Again we put the pot on the gas and cook for another 15-20 minutes.
- Boil potatoes and eggs. Then peel them and cut into small pieces or dice. Then we cut the ham in arbitrary cubes.
- In a salad bowl first lay the eggs in an even layer, salt and pepper if necessary.
- On top of the eggs lay a layer of sliced potatoes, add salt and pepper again. Pour yogurt on top of everything, lay a layer of ham and add some yogurt again.
- Sprinkle everything with green onions, chopping them beforehand.
- Drain the water from the opiats and let them dry a bit. Put them on top of the salad.
- Ready dish is sent to the fridge for a couple of hours.
The salad is ready. Eat it in good health!
We will need for cooking:
- clouded mushrooms - 500 g;
- onions - 500 gr;
- Cabbage - 2 kg;
- sweet bell pepper - 1 kg;
- vegetable oil - 100 ml;
- vinegar - 100 ml;
- parsley - 50 g;
- cloves - 3 units;
- bay- 2 leaves;
- pepper - 5 units;
- Ground pepper and salt - at the discretion of the hostess.
- Peel the mushrooms, wash them and start boiling. The first batch of water pour off after it boils. Pour new water and continue cooking for another half an hour.
- Shinch the cabbage finely. Onion finely chop and fry it until it has a golden hue. Bulgarian bell pepper cut into small pieces.
- Mix the cabbage with bell peppers and add to the cooked fried onions. Salt and pepper everything, if necessary. Continue to roast for another 15 minutes.
- 5 minutes before the vegetables are fully cooked add the cloves, peppercorns, bay and boiled mushrooms.
- A couple of minutes before turning off the gas add vinegar. All stirred.
- Jars sterilize with lids. Solyanka spread out in the prepared container. Jars roll up or close with tight lids.
- Turn the jars on their lids, cover with a towel and let the hodgepodge cool down.
- Put the snack in a cool place for storage.
To prepare the terrine will be required:
- Beech mushrooms - 1 kg;
- onions - 350 g;
- carrots - 350 g;
- salt - 25 g;
- oil for frying - 100 ml;
- sugar - a pinch;
- vinegar - 1 tbsp;
- pepper - to taste.
- Peel the mushrooms, wash and soak. Dirty water is drained and put clean mushrooms to cook in a deep dish. For this pour them about 2 liters of fresh water.
- Foam, which will be formed during cooking, remove with a spoon. You can use a skimmer. The first water can be drained and pour new water. If the mushrooms are clean and fresh, you can cook in the same water.
- Once the water begins to boil, reduce the gas and cook for half an hour.
- Prepare a colander, drain the water. From the broth cook soup.
- Onion cut into half rings and fry it until transparent.
- Add grated carrots to the onions and continue frying for another 15 minutes.
- Put the mushrooms in the roasted vegetables, add gas and fry until all the liquid evaporates. Salt and pepper everything, if necessary, and stir thoroughly. Two minutes before it is ready, add the vinegar and sugar.
- Turn off the gas, let the vegetables and mushrooms cool a bit and send them to grind in a meat grinder. To make the pâté tender, you need to use a fine nozzle or grind the ingredients in a meat grinder several times. Two times will be enough.
- Sterilize the jars together with the lids.
- Put the pâté in the container, making sure that there is no air in the snack.
- Strongly heat vegetable oil in a separate bowl, heat it and pour hot oil pate. It will be enough for each container with a snack 3-4 tbsp.
- We cover the jars with lids.
- In a separate pan put a towel on the bottom. Put the jars with the prepared snack on it and fill them halfway with hot water. Sterilize the jars for half an hour.
- Take out the jars and close them. Let them cool down and put in storage.
How to roast
For the usual roasting of mushrooms, we will need:
- Opyat mushrooms - 2 kg;
- Oil for frying - 500 ml;
- spices - to taste;
- salt - at the discretion of the hostess.
- Peel the opyat, wash and pour water for half an hour. Drain the water.
- We take out a pot and put the mushrooms there. All pour water and boil them for 40 minutes. Drain the liquid and let the beech mushrooms to dry.
- Pour the oil into a frying pan and heat it.
- Pour the mushrooms in the heated oil, salt, pepper if necessary, add spices.
- Stir everything, cover the mushrooms with a lid and stew them for half an hour.
- Take off the lid and open-fry for another 10 minutes. The mushrooms are ready.
How to Cook
In terms of time, it is enough to boil opyatas for half an hour. To do this, you must first thoroughly clean and rinse the mushrooms. Then put on the gas and bring the first batch of water to a boil. Drain the liquid, pour water over the mushrooms again. Put on the gas and boil. Cooking time - half an hour. Salt, pepper, add herbs and spices if necessary.
How to pickle
We give a simple recipe for canning. For the preparation will be required:
- Opyat mushrooms - 1 kg;
- Peppers - 4 pcs;
- vinegar - 1 tsp;
- lemon - 1 pc;
- salt - at the discretion of the hostess.
- Clean mushrooms, wash, pour water on them and keep them in water for 15 minutes.
- Drain it, put the beech mushrooms in a separate bowl. Again, we pour water and begin cooking. Add a little lemon juice.
- As soon as the water boils, pour it off. Pour fresh opyat. Continue cooking at a moderate gas. As soon as the water begins to boil, reduce the gas. Cooking time - half an hour. In the water add salt.
- Turn off the gas, pour the vinegar, add peppers. Taste the marinade for salt. Prepare jars and put the marinade with mushrooms in them.
- Close the container, cool the snack and send it for storage.
Is it possible to eat false opiats
False representatives of opyat are divided into edible and inedible. It is clear that only edible species can be eaten. Moreover, they are no worse in taste than the true representatives of the opyat.
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